Steps for Cleaning a Firearm Here are the steps for cleaning a firearm. Step 1: Clean barrel and metal parts with good commercial solvent. Step 2: Bore should be cleaned through breech end where possible. Step 3: Clean bore until dry patch comes through as clean as possible. Step 4: Run oily patch through barrel. Step 5: All metal parts should get light coat of oil. Step 6: Store in horizontal position, or with muzzle pointing down. Step 7: After storage, run a clean patch through bore before firing. Step 8: Remove all excess grease and oil.