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For example, someone hunting small, fast, close birds would generally use an improved cylinder or modified choke, which creates a broad shot pattern that spreads quickly at close ranges. Conversely, someone hunting a larger, less mobile bird that is usually farther away, such as a turkey, would select a full choke, which concentrates the shot in a smaller area. Pellet size also varies based on the size of the game. The chart below suggests choke selections for a variety of game. It is intended only as a guide—choice of choke may vary depending on ammunition, target distance, and hunting conditions. Always pattern your shotgun for the quarry you are hunting and the ammunition you are using.

Quarry Commonly Used Choke
(based on typical distance from quarry)
Goose Improved Cylinder or Modified
Duck Improved Cylinder or Modified
Turkey Full or Extra Full
Pheasant Improved Cylinder, Modified, or Full
Grouse Improved Cylinder or Modified
Woodcock, rail, or snipe Improved Cylinder or Modified
Dove Improved Cylinder or Modified
Quail Improved Cylinder or Modified
Rabbit Improved Cylinder or Modified
Squirrel Modified or Full