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As with rifle shooting, good shotgun marksmanship begins with proper preparation, which includes adjusting your gun and ammunition for maximum performance and mastering shotgun techniques.

A choke allows you to fine-tune your shotgun for the type of game you're hunting. Built-in or attached to the muzzle end of the barrel, the choke can be constricted to create a tighter pattern of shot, thus controlling pattern density at various distances.

The tighter the constriction, the longer the cluster of shot stays together. The looser the constriction, the faster the shot pattern spreads. The most common chokes, ranging from tightest to widest, are:

  • Full
  • Modified
  • Improved Cylinder
  • Cylinder (unchoked)
Full choke