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Broken Bones

Signs
Pain, tenderness, deformity, swelling, and possible bleeding.
Treatment
Control bleeding first; care for shock; keep broken bone ends and adjacent joints from moving.

Burns

Signs
1st degree—skin is red.
2nd degree—skin is blistered.
3rd degree—skin is charred.
Treatment
1st and 2nd degree with closed blisters—flush with cold water until pain stops, apply loose, moist dressing; care for shock. 2nd degree with open blisters and 3rd degree—apply loose, dry dressing; care for shock.

Cuts

Signs
Bleeding.
Treatment
Apply pressure with a pad of clean cloth directly over the wound. For severe bleeding, elevate the wound above the heart level and apply direct pressure. If needed, apply pressure on nearest artery (the inner side of the arm between the shoulder and elbow, or the upper leg where it joins the body).

Hypothermia

Signs
See section on hypothermia.

Frostbite

Signs
Skin color is white or grayish-yellow.
Affected part may feel only very cold and numb. Skin surface will feel hard or crusty; underlying tissue soft when depressed.
Treatment
Seek medical attention immediately. Do not rub affected areas. Warm gently by placing fingers or hands under arms or by holding affected areas in warm hands.

Object in Eyes

Signs
Local irritation, tearing, and wetting.
Treatment
Don’t rub. Lift upper eyelid and flush with water. If unsuccessful, close both eyes and wrap with loose bandage. Get medical attention.

Shock

Signs
Pale, clammy skin; irregular breathing; fast, weak pulse.
Treatment
Keep person lying down, elevate feet, and maintain normal body temperature (98.6° F). Do not give fluids if victim is unconscious. Begin CPR if needed. Get medical attention.

Sunburn

Signs
Red, painful skin and chills. Fever and shock occasionally accompany severe burns.
Treatment
Apply cold water. Do not re-expose burned area to sun until completely healed. Get medical attention.

Heat Stroke

Signs
Hot skin. Victims do not sweat. High body temperature, rapid pulse and respirations, weakness, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting.
Treatment
Heat stroke is a true emergency. Move the victim to a cool place. Immediately cool the victim by any available means. Seek medical attention.

Heat Exhaustion

Signs
Heavy sweating, weakness, rapid pulse, normal body temperature, headache and dizziness, nausea and vomiting.
Treatment
Move victim to a cool place. Keep him/her lying down with legs up. Cool by applying cold packs or wet towels. Fan the victim. Give cold water only if conscious. Seek medical attention.

Unconsciousness

Signs
Victim is not awake, does not respond to external stimuli.
Treatment
Treat for shock. Turn head to side in case of vomiting. Stand by to give CPR if breathing stops. Never give liquids or foods to an unconscious person. Get medical attention.

Insect Stings

Signs

Usual reactions: Momentary pain, redness around sting bite, itching, heat.

Worrisome reactions: Skin flushes, hives, localized swelling of lips or tongue, “tickle” in throat, wheezing, abdominal cramps, diarrhea.

Life-threatening reactions: Bluish or grayish skin color, seizures, unconsciousness, inability to breathe due to swelling of vocal cords.

Treatment
Carefully examine the sting site for a stinger embedded in the skin. If the stinger is still embedded, remove it with a scraping motion rather than squeezing or pinching. Wash the sting site. Apply ice pack to slow absorption of venom and to relieve pain. Some type of analgesic (aspirin, acetaminophen) will help relieve pain, and a topical cream such as hydrocortisone may help combat local swelling and itching. Observe victim for at least 30 minutes for signs of allergic reaction.

Rescue

Signs
Breathing/CPR
Treatment
Take a Rescue Breathing/CPR course.