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Frostbite occurs when tissue freezes.

  • The best prevention for frostbite is to avoid severe weather. If you are caught in extremely cold weather, pay attention to your head and extremities, such as fingers, toes, ears, and nose. Wear a face cover if the temperature is below 0° Fahrenheit.
  • When frostbite occurs, skin turns off-white and a prickly or tingling feeling occurs as ice crystals form. Pain may be present initially and then disappears as frostbite progresses. In severe cases, the victim experiences a loss of feeling in the affected area.
  • Treat frostbite by warming the affected area with body heat but avoid rubbing, which can damage tissue.
    • Do not use hot water or other external heat sources, which could cause burns.
    • Wrap with warm, dry clothing.
    • Move to a warm shelter.
    • Drink hot liquids.
    • Get medical attention.

Wind Chill

Wind Chill Temperature Index

Wind chill is given in the body of the table. The National Weather Service issues a Wind Chill Advisory when wind chills are expected to reach -10° F. A Wind Chill Warning will be issued when wind chills are expected to be -20° F or lower.