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Shock can result from any serious injury. Symptoms include pale, cold, clammy skin; rapid pulse; shallow breathing; and fear in the victim.

To treat shock:

  • Keep the victim lying on his or her back. In some cases, shock victims improve by raising their feet 8-10 inches.
  • If the victim is having trouble breathing, raise the victim’s head and shoulders about 10 inches rather than raising the feet.
  • Maintain normal body temperature, and loosen any restrictive clothing.
  • Try to keep the victim calm and comfortable, and get medical help as quickly as possible.